Ce contenu est une compilation d'articles de l'encyclopÃ©die libre Wikipedia. This list of pre-Columbian civilizations includes those civilizations and cultures of the Americas which flourished prior to the European colonization of the Americas. These pre-Columbian civilizations established characteristics such as permanent or urban settlements, agriculture, and complex societal hierarchies. Many of these civilizations had long ceased to function by the time of the first permanent European arrivals (c. late 15th â€“ early 16th centuries), and are known only through archaeological investigations. Others were contemporary with this period, and are also known from historical accounts of the time. A few (such as the Maya) had their own written records. However, most Europeans of the time largely viewed such text as heretical and few survived Christian pyres. Only a few hidden documents remain today, leaving modern historians with glimpses of ancient culture and knowledge.